of March 2, 1974, denounces the distressing situation of political
prisoners in Cuba. This complaint is accompanied by a list of 124
prisoners in urgent need of medical treatment and a copy of the same
denunciation, submitted to the United Nations Commission on Human
Commission studied this communication at its thirty-second session
(April 1972). In the light of the information on this type of situation,
the Commission considered that the communication was admissible without
prejudice to the fact that it had already been submitted to the United
Nations and decided to transmit the pertinent parts of it to the
Government of Cuba with a request for information, in accordance with
Articles 42 and 44 of the Rules of Procedure.
implementation of this decision, the Commission sent a note to the
Government of Cuba on June 24, 1974. In a letter dated April 29, 1974,
it informed the complainants of this decision.
the thirty-fourth session (October 1974), bearing in mind the fact that
the Government of Cuba had not provided the pertinent information
although the time-limit stipulated in Article 51 of the Rules of
Procedure had not yet expired, the Commission decided to repeat to that
Government the request that it send the pertinent information.
this regard the CIDH addressed the Government of Cuba on December 17,
the thirty-fifth session (May 1975), the Commission examined case 1805
together with other cases related to the status of human rights in Cuba,
noting that the Government of that country continued to fail to provide
the information requested in order to conduct a study on the case, and
that the period provided for under Article 51 of the Regulations for
transmittal of that information had elapsed.
it agreed, in application of Article 51 of the Regulations, to resume
confirmation of the events denounced in the complaint. It approved the
following Resolution (OEA/Ser.L/V/II.35, doc.2, rev.1, of May 29, 1975)
at that session.
communication of April 8, 1974, the following was denounced:
almost 15 years Cuban political prisoners have been submitted to cruel,
inhumane and degrading prison conditions.
situation has been denounced by the prisoners themselves through hunger
strikes and petitions for humane treatment in compliance with the Treaty
of Human Rights and the agreements on human rights of which Cuba is a
were prisoners who entered and left jail after years of imprisonment
without knowing what they were accused of. Others, after years in
prison, without a trial and without being sentenced, were taken from the
jail and summarily executed. One of the first cases of this latter type
is that of the group that took up arms in the mountains of El Escambray
in late 1960. Those who were not killed in the military operation were
taken prisoner to the then active Isla de Pinos prison, without a trial
and without being sentenced. After more than two years, in July-August
1963, a group of these prisoners were taken from the jail to the
mainland and machine-gunned while they were descending from trucks in a
place known as Torre Iznaga, Zona del Condado in Las Villas Province.
Twenty-one prisoners died there by machine-gun fire. We are able to
furnish the names of twelve of them, without prejudice to completing the
list at a later date. The victims were Carlos Curbelo del Sol, Carlos
Montalvo, Zacarías García, Alejandro Toledo, Agustín Zerguera,
Ruperto Ulacia, Liste López, Ignacio Zúñiga, Nené Fernández, Ramón
Pérez, Alejandro Lima y Blas Marín. Ruíz Mayor and the youth Aldo
Chaviano survived the massacre.
of mention is the fate of Captain of the Rebel Army of Fidel Castro,
Porfirio Remberto Ramírez, who was President of the Federación
Estudiantil Universitaria of the Central University of Las Villas.
Porfirio Ramírez had been an active fighter against the previous
regime. But being an idealistic student and a man of deep democratic
faith, he took up arms. He was captured and summarily 'tried'. Later he
was taken to a place known as the Campamento La Campana in Las Villas
January 1, 1959 thousands of persons have been shot without a trial. We
give the following examples from the years 1961-1970:
Pérez León, who died in childbirth in the women's jail of Guanajay, at
21 years of age in January 1961. She was denied medical assistance
during a pregnancy that presented complications. Her husband, who was
being held in another prison, hanged himself upon learning of the death
of his wife and son.
Pereira Varela (Juanín): Student. 21 years old. Detained in Havana.
Shot without trial in Pinar del Río on December 17, 1961.
Aquino. 60 years old. Maintained nude. Died of the cold in area Nº 4 of
the Isla de Pinos on December 14, 1962.
González Rosquete, died of septicemia in the jail on Guanajay in
December 1961, having been refused medical assistance though suffering
from an advanced case of oral infection.
Medina, died in the Castillo del Príncipe of an asthma attack, without
1964 to 1967 the following persons died in the jail of the Isla de
Díaz Madruga, August 9, 1964
Nieves Cruz, José Guerra Pascual and José Alfonso Olarana, September
Condines, January 8, 1966.
Tang Texier, September 3, 1966.
López Chávez, November 12, 1966.
Alvarez Molina, December 9, 1966.
Quit Manrique, December 16, 1966.
Crespo, December 24, 1966.
Novales, February 28, 1967.
being able to give an exact date, the following also were killed, José
Pereda, Tomás Aguirre, Ramón Quesada, Julio Hernández, Filiberto
Polledo Morales, Gastón Vidal, Manuel Cuevas and Luis Alvarez Ríos.
of them, except for Roberto López Chávez, who died during a hunger
strike, without medical assistance, were killed by beatings, knifings,
bayoneting or shootings, during the imposition of the famous plan of
forced labor. In 1967 the jail of the Isla de Pinos was dismantled and
the prisoners were distributed to different centers of detention in
Aida Rosa Pérez, 42 years of age, who was a nun of the Sisters of
Charity and who suffered from heart disease; she had been isolated for
months under the tension of a false promise of being released shortly.
Fernández Varela, murdered by blows in the Fortaleza de La Cabaña.
Domínguez Socorro, committed suicide in La Cabaña prison.
Balbuena Calzadilla, died deranged as a result of the physical tortures
to which he was subjected in the concentration camps of Las Gavetas of
San Ramón and Tres Maceos in Oriente.
Molina and Alfredo Carrión Obeso, died in the concentration camp of
Melena Nº 2, without medical assistance.
Cuadra, died during a hunger strike, without medical assistance, in La
Amoedo Bueno, died of an asthma attack, without medical assistance,
while being transferred from the concentration camp Melena Nº 2 to the
Castillo del Príncipe of Havana.
Francisco Mira, Bay of Pigs combatant, died in Melena Nº 2, without
Oriol Acosta-García, sugar-cane worker, was shot in the head on August
5, 1971 in the concentration camp of Manacas, Las Villas, known as the
Campo de Seguridad Nº 4. The guards fired on him by order of the prison
director, Abraham Claro Cruz.
Ramos Kessel and Ibrahim Torres Martínez, died in a shuttered cell of
the Boniato jail on February 4 and 7, 1972, respectively, having been
denied medical assistance. Their bodies were found by the smell.
Luis Boitel, student leader, died during a hunger strike, tortured and
semi-paralyzed, in the Castillo del Príncipe, Havana on May 25, 1972.
San Martín, shot in the Jail 5-1/2 in Pinar del Río on December 1972.
García Cuevas, died during a hunger strike, without medical assistance,
in Calabozo Nº 4 of the pew Provincial Jail of Santa Clara on June 24,
Camejo, died of anemia and malnutrition in early 1973 in the jail of Morón.
Morales Pascual, died of an illness, without medical assistance, in the
Centro de Seguridad Nº 4 of Manacas, Las Villas, in March 1973.
Charlot Pileta. This black youth died during a hunger strike, without
medical assistance, in the famous "Escaleras" of the Boniato
jail, in January 1973.
Díaz, was held in the concentration camp of Manacas and then taken to
the G-2 corps of Santa Clara. Days later his family was advised that he
had hanged himself in his cell. This occurred in early 1974.
Ruíz del Cristo, 56 years old, died of cancer in La Cabaña, Havana,
without medical assistance, on Monday, January 14, 1974 at 3:20 p.m.
of mention is the number of prisons and concentration camps that the
government has placed on the island:
del Río Province: Taco Taco, Fajardo, El Caribe, El Blai, El Brujo and
Havana Province: Jails: La Cabaña, El Morro, Guanajuay. Forced labor
camps: 100 and Boyeros. Concentration camps: Melena 1 and 2, Jaruco 1
(adults) and 2 (juveniles), Nuevo Amanecer (formerly América Libre) for
women, Valle del Perú, prison for juveniles 13 and Paseo, Vedado,
Combinado del Este (being constructed with a capacity of 20,000
Province: Jails: San Severino and Matanzas. Concentration camps: Aguica
and Caballero Milián.
Villas Province: Jails: Santa Clara, Sagua, Remedios, Sancti Spiritus.
Concentration camps: Centro de Seguridad Nº 4, Ariza, Condado,
Provence: Jails: Morón (with shuttered cells) and Camaguey. Forced
labor camps: Florida and UMAP.
Province: Jails: Boniato (huge cell-blocks,. two of which are known as
"Las Tapadas" with cells whose doors and windows have been
covered with sheets of steel), El Castillito, Baracoa, La Culebra.
Concentration camps: El Mijial, Tres Maceos and Gavetas of San Ramón.
is difficult to give an exact number of these centers of confinement
because the government, as they accumulate prisoners or as the protests
of mistreatment multiply, erects and dismantles 'those jails, abandons
some and creates others in different areas of the island.
the present time, the concentration camp for women named with unequaled
cynicism "América Libre" is being transformed and painted
with the probable intention of presenting, is some inspection is
permitted, this dark cavern of confinement, cleaned up on the outside,
although the mistreatment and abuses continue on the outside. It is
called ''Nuevo Amanecer" (New Dawn) as if the name might hide the
dark night of barbarous mistreatment during these fifteen years of
ignominy. We remember the case of the concentration camps that Hitler
presented to the International Red Cross during his bloody and
exercise of the authority granted it by Article 9(bis) of its Statute,
the Commission requested the Government of Cuba, by note of June 24,
1974, to provide the appropriate information and transmitted to it, at
the same time, the pertinent parts of the aforementioned communication,
in the manner established in Articles 42 (1) and 44 of its Regulations.
its thirty-fourth session (October 1974) the Commission, noting that the
Government of Cuba had not responded to the aforementioned request for
information, decided to repeat the request, with mention of the date on
which the 180-day period of Article 51 of the Regulations would elapse
and the application of the rule of the presumption of the confirmation
of the allegations established in that article.
to this decision a note was sent to the Government of Cuba on December
Government of Cuba has not responded.
51 of the Regulations reads as follows:
occurrence of the events on which information has been requested will be
presumed to be confirmed if the Government referred to has not supplied
such information within 180 days of the request, provided always, that
the invalidity of the events denounced is not shown by other elements of
Commission may make an extension to the term of 180 days in cases in
which it finds it justified"
the formulation of observations nor, in general, the competence of the
Commission to take cognizance of denunciations regarding violations of
human rights committed in the territory of Cuba is barred by the
measures adopted by the Organization of American States with respect to
the present government of that country, since that government has not
denounced the Charter of the Organization, provided for in Article 148
of the Charter, for which reason it is the duty of the Commission to
continue to take cognizance of these denunciations.
view of the systematic silence of the present Government of Cuba in the
face of the numerous communications received from the Commission, it
would serve no practical purpose to make the type of recommendations
envisaged in Articles 9 b and 9 (bis) b of the Statute.
However, this does not prevent the Commission from making known its
considered opinion on the allegations to the General Assembly of the
Organization of American States.
INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, RESOLVES:
presume the confirmation of the occurrence of the allegations contained
in the communication of April 8, 1974, in application of Article 51 of
include this resolution in the Annual Report that the Commission
presents to the General Assembly of the Organization (Article 9(bis) c
of its Statute) making known that the allegations constitute a very
serious case of the violation of the right to life, liberty and personal
security, set forth in Article I of the Declaration of the Rights and
Duties of Man.
transmit this resolution to the Government of Cuba and to the claimants.
resolution was brought to the attention of the Government of Cuba and
the claimants through notes dated June 1, 1915, and June 4, 1975,